Science Reasoning Text

Science involves describing, predicting and explaining nature and its changes, in the simplest way possible.  Scientists continually refine their understanding of the natural world so that it is as precise and complete as possible.  How do scientists do their work?  In other words, what methods and skills do scientists use in their work?

Although there is no one scientific method that all scientists use, there are many common elements of the scientific enterprise:

  • how research is conducted and reported,
  • what attitudes are characteristic of scientists,
  • what language they use, and
  • what processes are often used in empirical and theoretical studies.

All of these elements are important to gain a general understanding of scientific reasoning. Select your interest from the links provided at the top of the left frame.

**New materials are included in the Adapted Primary Literature section of the website.


"If we teach only the findings and products of science—no matter how useful and even inspiring they may be—without communicating its critical method, how can the average person possibly distinguish science from pseudoscience?"

— Carl Sagan, astronomer and author